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阿拉伯马系列-17[马的风采][俄罗斯]

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====================阿拉伯马系列-17[马的风采][俄罗斯]=============================

阿拉伯阿拉伯马阿拉伯语 :الحصانالعربي [他ˤ一个° Nʕarabiː] , DMG ḥiṣānʿ拟南芥 )是的一个品种就起源于阿拉伯半岛With a distinctive head shape and high tail carriage, the Arabian is one of the most easily recognizable horse breeds in the world.阿拉伯是具有鲜明的头部形状和高尾马车,在世界上最容易辨认的马品种之一。 It is also one of the oldest breeds, with archaeological evidence of horses that resemble modern Arabians dating back 4,500 years.它也是最古老的品种之一, 考古证据的类似于现代阿拉伯追溯到4,500年前的马。 Throughout history, Arabian horses spread around the world by both war and trade, used to improve other breeds by adding speed, refinement, endurance, and strong bone.纵观历史,阿拉伯马通过战争和贸易传播到世界各地,用于改善其他品种的增加速度,细化,耐力,和强骨。 Today, Arabian bloodlines are found in almost every modern breed of riding horse.今天,阿拉伯血统被发现几乎在每一个骑马的现代品种。

The Arabian developed in a desert climate and was prized by the nomadic Bedouin people, often being brought inside the family tent for shelter and protection from theft. Selective breeding for traits including an ability to form a cooperative relationship with humans created a horse breed that is good-natured, quick to learn, and willing to please.阿拉伯开发中的沙漠气候和珍贵的游牧的贝都因人,往往带来住房和保护被盗窃的家庭帐篷内。包括能力,形成了合作关系,用人类创造了一个马品种性状的选育脾气好,快速学习,并愿意请。 The Arabian also developed the high spirit and alertness needed in a horse used for raiding and war .阿拉伯还开发了用于袭击和马所需的高昂的斗志和警觉性战争。 This combination of willingness and sensitivity requires modern Arabian horse owners to handle their horses with competence and respect.这种意愿和灵敏度相结合需要现代阿拉伯马业主处理能力和尊重他们的马匹。

The Arabian is a versatile breed.阿拉伯是一个多功能的品种。 Arabians dominate the discipline of endurance riding , and compete today in many other fields of equestrian activity.阿拉伯人占主导地位的学科耐力骑 ,并在其他许多领域竞争的今天马术活动。 They are one of the top ten most popular horse breeds in the world.他们的十大最受欢迎的马品种 ,在世界。 They are now found worldwide, including the United States and Canada, the United Kingdom, Australia, continental Europe, South America (especially Brazil), and its land of origin, the Middle East.他们现在发现世界各地,包括美国和加拿大,英国,澳大利亚,欧洲大陆,南美(尤其是巴西),和其原籍国,中东地区的土地。

Contents目录

[ edit ] Breed characteristics [ 编辑 ] 品种特性

浅灰色马小跑通过一个舞台,所有四个脚离地面。尾巴是进行高,是拱形的脖子。
A purebred Arabian stallion, showing dished profile, arched neck, level croup and high-carried tail一只纯种的阿拉伯种马,显示抛出轮廓,拱形的颈部,臀部水平和高进行尾

Arabian horses have refined, wedge-shaped heads, a broad forehead, large eyes, large nostrils, and small muzzles.阿拉伯马有精致的楔形头,宽阔的前额,大眼睛,大鼻孔,和小枪口。 Most display a distinctive concave or "dished" profile.大多数显示鲜明的凹或“抛出”的个人资料。 Many Arabians also have a slight forehead bulge between their eyes, called the jibbah by the Bedouin , that adds additional sinus capacity, believed to have helped the Arabian horse in its native dry desert climate. [ 1 ] [ 2 ] Another breed characteristic is an arched neck with a large, well-set windpipe set on a refined, clean throatlatch .许多阿拉伯人也有他们的眼睛之间的一个轻微的额头隆起, 所谓jibbah由贝都因人,增加了额外的窦能力,认为有帮助,在其原生的干燥的沙漠气候的阿拉伯马。 [1 ] [2]另一个品种的特点是拱形的脖子上一个精致,干净的一个大的,精心设置的气管throatlatch。 This structure of the poll and throatlatch was called the mitbah or mitbeh by the Bedouin.这种结构的调查和throatlatch被称为mitbahmitbeh贝都因人。 In the best Arabians it is long, allowing flexibility in the bridle and room for the windpipe. [ 2 ] [2]在最好的阿拉伯人,它是长期的,允许灵活性, 在气管的马笼头和空间。

Other distinctive features are a relatively long, level croup , or top of the hindquarters, and naturally high tail carriage.其他鲜明的特点是一个比较长的, 水平的臀部,或后躯之上,自然就高了尾巴运输。 The USEF breed standard requires Arabians have solid bone and standard correct equine conformation . [ 3 ] Well-bred Arabians have a deep, well-angled hip and well laid-back shoulder. [ 4 ] Within the breed, there are variations. USEF品种标准要求阿拉伯人有坚实的骨骼和标准的正确马 构象[ 3 ]。纯种阿拉伯马有深,角度髋关节和悠闲的肩膀 。[4]范围内的品种,也有变化。 Some individuals have wider, more powerfully muscled hindquarters suitable for intense bursts of activity in events such as reining , while others have longer, leaner muscling better suited for long stretches of flat work such as endurance riding or horse racing . [ 5 ] Most have a compact body with a short back. [ 2 ] Arabians usually have dense, strong bone, and good hoof walls.有些人有更广泛的,更有力的肌肉激烈,如事件中的活动爆发后躯适合充满了渴望,而另一些则更长,更精简的肌肉更好的适合很长一段平坦的工作,耐力骑马或赛马。 [5 ]大多数有小巧的机身与短期回[2] 。阿拉伯人通常有高密度,强骨,和良好蹄壁。 They are especially noted for their endurance, [ 6 ] [ 7 ] and the superiority of the breed in Endurance riding competition demonstrates that well-bred Arabians are strong, sound horses with superior stamina.他们特别指出,他们的耐力[6] [7]耐力骑的竞争优势在品种示范,有教养的阿拉伯人强,具有超强耐力的声音马。 At international FEI -sponsored endurance events, Arabians and half-Arabians are the dominant performers in distance competition. [ 8 ]在国际赞助耐力事件,阿拉伯人和半阿拉伯人距离的竞争中占主导地位的表演。 [8]

[ edit ] Skeletal analysis [ 编辑 ] 骨骼分析

一个马defleshed骨架放在一起站立姿势。
Mounted skeleton of an Arabian horse, showing underlying structure of breed characteristics including short back, high-set tail, distinction between level croup and well-angulated hip.安装阿拉伯马骨架,品种特性,包括短期回,高定的尾巴,区分水平的臀部和良好的棱角髋的底层结构。 This specimen also has only 5 lumbar vertebrae.这个标本也只有5腰椎。

Some Arabians, though not all, have 5 lumbar vertebrae instead of the usual 6, and 17 pairs of ribs rather than 18. [ 9 ] A quality Arabian has both a relatively horizontal croup and a properly angled pelvis as well as good croup length and depth to the hip (determined by the length of the pelvis), that allows agility and impulsion. [ 4 ] [ 10 ] A misconception confuses the topline of the croup with the angle of the "hip" (the pelvis or ilium ), leading some to assert that Arabians have a flat pelvis angle and cannot use their hindquarters properly.一些阿拉伯人,虽然不是全部,有5 腰椎 椎体 ,而不是通常的6和17 肋骨,而不是18 。[9 ]一个阿拉伯有一个相对水平的臀部骨盆正确角度以及良好的臀部的长度和质量深入到臀部(骨盆的长度决定),允许灵活性和冲动。[4 ] [10 ]一种误解,混淆臀部的背线与角的“时髦”( 骨盆或髂骨) ,领先一些断言,阿拉伯有一个单位的骨盆角,并不能正确地使用他们的后躯。 However, the croup is formed by the sacral vertebrae.但是,臀部是由椎。 The hip angle is determined by the attachment of the ilium to the spine, the structure and length of the femur , and other aspects of hindquarter anatomy, which is not correlated to the topline of the sacrum.臀尖是由附件的髂骨脊椎,结构和股骨的长度,解剖后半部,这是不相关骶骨恒瑞 ​​的其他方面。 Thus, the Arabian has conformation typical of other horse breeds built for speed and distance, such as the Thoroughbred , where the angle of the ilium is more oblique than that of the croup. [ 11 ] [ 12 ] [ 13 ] Thus, the hip angle is not necessarily correlated to the topline of the croup.因此,阿拉伯构象典型的如其他马的速度和距离的内置品种纯种,髂骨的角度超过臀部[ 11] [12 ] [ 13]因此,髋关节。角度不一定是相关臀部的背线。 Horses bred to gallop need a good length of croup and good length of hip for proper attachment of muscles, and so unlike angle, length of hip and croup do go together as a rule. [ 12 ] [12]繁殖疾驰的马匹需要一个良好的臀部的长度和良好的臀部肌肉适当的附件长度,等不同角度,髋关节和臀部的长度,作为一项规则一起去。

[ edit ] Size [ 编辑 ] 尺寸

The breed standard stated by the United States Equestrian Federation , describes Arabians as standing between 14.1 to 15.1 hands (57 to 61 inches, 145 to 155 cm) tall, "with the occasional individual over or under." [ 3 ] Thus, all Arabians, regardless of height, are classified as "horses", even though 14.2 hands (58 inches, 147 cm) is the traditional cutoff height between a horse and a pony . [ 14 ] A common myth is that Arabians are not strong because they are relatively small and refined.品种标准由美国马术联合会表示,描述为14.1至15.1之间站在阿拉伯人手中 (57至61英寸,145至155厘米)高,“偶尔超过或低于个人。” [3]因此,所有的阿拉伯人[14] ,无论高度,归类为“马”,14.2 58英寸(147厘米) ,即使是传统的截止高度之间和一匹小马。一个共同的神话,阿拉伯人不强,因为他们是相对较小和完善。 However, the Arabian horse is noted for a greater density of bone than other breeds, short cannons , sound feet, and a broad, short back, [ 2 ] all of which give the breed physical strength comparable to many taller animals. [ 15 ] Thus, even a smaller Arabian can carry a heavy rider. [15]然而,阿拉伯马是密度较大的骨比其他品种,短指出大炮 ,健全的双脚,以及广泛的,短背, [2]所有给予该品种的体力与许多高大的动物。因此,即使是较小的阿拉伯背上了沉重的骑手。 For tasks where the sheer weight of the horse matters, such as farm work done by a draft horse , [ 16 ] any lighter-weight horse is at a disadvantage. [ 16 ] However, for most purposes, the Arabian is a strong and hardy light horse breed able to carry any type of rider in most equestrian pursuits. [ 15 ]对于任务马事宜纯粹的重量,如一个做农活草案,[16 ]任何重量更轻的马是处于劣势。[16 ]但是,对于大多数用途,阿拉伯是一个强大和强壮[15]轻骑兵品种能够携带任何类型的车手在大多数马术的追求。

[ edit ] Temperament [ 编辑 ] 气质

一匹黑马对相机而动,头高举腿迈进。
Arabians are noted for both intelligence and a spirited disposition阿拉伯人注意到情报和昂扬的处置

For centuries, Arabian horses lived in the desert in close association with humans. [ 17 ] For shelter and protection from theft, prized war mares were sometimes kept in their owner's tent, close to children and everyday family life. [ 18 ] Only horses with a naturally good disposition were allowed to reproduce, with the result that Arabians today have a good temperament that, among other examples, makes them one of the few breeds where the United States Equestrian Federation rules allow children to exhibit stallions in nearly all show ring classes, including those limited to riders under 18. [ 19 ]数百年来,阿拉伯马生活在沙漠与人类密切关联。 [17]对于住房和盗窃保护珍贵的战争匹母马 ,有时在其所有者的帐篷保存,关闭儿童和日常家庭生活[18]与只有马一个自然良好的处置被允许复制的结果,阿拉伯人今天有一个良好的气质,在其他例子中,使他们所在的少数品种之一,美国马术联合会的规则,让孩子们表现出的公马在几乎所有的显示环类,包括未满18岁者限于车手。 [19]

On the other hand, the Arabian is also classified as a "hot-blooded" breed, a category that includes other refined, spirited horses bred for speed, such as the Akhal-Teke , the Barb and the Thoroughbred .另一方面,阿拉伯也列为“热血”的品种,一个类别,其中包括其他精炼,意气风发的马的速度繁殖, 例如,阿克哈 - 塔克马倒钩的纯种。 Like other hot-bloods, Arabians' sensitivity and intelligence enable quick learning and greater communication with their riders; however, their intelligence also allows them to learn bad habits as quickly as good ones, [ 20 ] and they do not tolerate inept or abusive training practices. [ 21 ] Some sources claim that it is more difficult to train a "hot-blooded" horse. [ 22 ] Though most Arabians have a natural tendency to cooperate with humans, when treated badly, like any horse, they can become excessively nervous or anxious, but seldom become vicious unless seriously spoiled or subjected to extreme abuse. [ 21 ] At the other end of the spectrum, romantic myths are sometimes told about Arabian horses that give them near-divine characteristics. [ 23 ]像其他热的血,阿拉伯人的敏感性和智能,能够快速的学习与他们的车手和更好的沟通,然而,他们的智力也使他们能够尽快学好学坏好的, [20],他们不容忍无能或虐待的培训做法。 [21]一些消息来源声称,它是比较困难的,培养出“热血”马的。 [ 22 ]虽然大多数阿拉伯人有一种天然的倾向,与人合作时,处理不好,就像任何马匹,他们可以变得过分紧张或焦虑,但很少成为恶性的,除非是严重损坏或遭受极度虐待。[ 21]在光谱的另一端,浪漫的神话有时告诉阿拉伯马,给他们近乎神圣的特性[ 23 ]。

[ edit ] Colors [ 编辑 ] 颜色

The Arabian Horse Association registers purebred horses with the coat colors bay , gray , chestnut , black , and roan . [ 24 ] Bay, gray and chestnut are the most common, black is less common. [ 25 ] The classic roan gene does not appear to exist in Arabians; [ 26 ] rather, Arabians registered by breeders as "roan" are usually expressing rabicano or, sometimes, sabino patterns with roan features. [ 27 ] All Arabians, no matter their coat color , have black skin, except under white markings .阿拉伯马协会注册与毛色纯种灰色栗色黑色 罗安[24 ] 。湾,灰色和栗子是最常见的,黑色是不太常见。[25 ]经典罗安基因不会出现存在于阿拉伯人; [26] ,而育种者登记为“罗恩”的阿拉伯人通常表达 rabicano或者,有时萨维诺罗安功能模式[27 ]所有阿拉伯,无论它们的毛色,黑皮肤,除根据白色斑纹 Black skin provided protection from the intense desert sun. [ 28 ]黑皮肤提供从激烈的沙漠烈日的保护[ 28 ]。

马,一个白色的毛发和皮肤黝黑的鼻子,眼睛和生殖器周围显示。
A gray Arabian, note white hair coat but black skin一个灰色的阿拉伯,注意白色的毛发,但黑皮肤

[ edit ] Gray and white [ 编辑 ] 灰色和白色

Although many Arabians appear "white", they are not.虽然许多阿拉伯人出现“白”,他们都没有。 A white hair coat is usually created by the natural action of the gray gene , and virtually all "white" Arabians are actually grays. [ 29 ] A specialized colorization seen in some older gray Arabians is the so-called "bloody-shoulder", which is a particular type of "flea-bitten" gray with localized aggregations of pigment on the shoulder. [ 30 ] [ 31 ]白色被毛通常是灰色 基因的自然行动,几乎所有的“白”阿拉伯人实际上是灰色。 [29]在一些旧的灰色阿拉伯人看到一个专门的着色是所谓的“血腥的肩“,这是一个特定类型的“跳蚤叮咬”灰色本地化聚合色素的肩膀。[30 ] [31 ]

There are a very few Arabians registered as "white", having a white coat, pink skin and dark eyes from birth.有极少数的阿拉伯人注册为“白色”,从出生的白色外套,粉红色的皮肤和黑眼睛。 These animals are believed to manifest a new form of dominant white , a result of a nonsense mutation in DNA tracing to a single stallion foaled in 1996. [ 32 ] This horse was originally thought to be a sabino, but actually was found to have a new form of dominant white mutation, now labeled W3. [ 32 ] It is possible that white mutations have occurred in Arabians in the past or that mutations other than W3 exist but have not been verified by genetic testing. [ 27 ]这些动物被认为体现的新形式的主导白色,结果跟踪到一个单一的种马在1996年foaled义突变的DNA [32 ]这匹马原本被认为是一个萨维诺,但实际上被发现有[27]占优势地位的白人突变的新形式,现在已经被W3 。[32 ]它是可能的白色突变发生在阿拉伯人在过去的突变比W3的存在,但尚未通过基因检测证实。

[ edit ] Sabino [ 编辑 ] 萨比诺

One spotting pattern, sabino , does exist in purebred Arabians.一个斑点图案, 萨维诺 ,确实存在纯种阿拉伯马。 Sabino coloring is characterized by white markings such as "high white" above the knees and hocks , irregular spotting on the legs, belly and face, white markings that extend beyond the eyes or under the chin and jaw, and sometimes lacy or roaned edges. [ 33 ]萨比诺着色的白色斑纹 ,如“高白”膝盖以上,飞节,不规则斑点的腿,腹部和脸,白色斑纹,超出了眼睛,下颏和下巴,边缘有时有花边或roaned延长的特点。 [33]

The genetic mechanism that produces sabino patterning in Arabians is undetermined, and more than one gene may be involved. [ 27 ] Studies at the University of California, Davis indicate that Arabians do not appear to carry the autosomal dominant gene "SB1" or sabino 1 , that often produces bold spotting and some completely white horses in other breeds.在阿拉伯人萨维诺图案的遗传机制产生是不确定的,可能涉及一个以上的基因。 [27]美国加州大学戴维斯分校的研究表明,阿拉伯人不会出现进行的常染色体 显性遗传基因“SB1” 或萨维诺 1 ,经常会产生大胆发现和其他品种的一些完全白色的马。 The inheritance patterns observed in sabino-like Arabians also do not follow the same mode of inheritance as sabino 1 . [ 34 ] [ 35 ]观察萨维诺像阿拉伯人的继承模式也没有遵循萨维诺1继承相同的模式。 [34] [35]

与黑暗的红褐色,颈部,上背部,胸部和腿部,但在身体的中间和尾部基地的白头发着色马小跑。
A chestnut rabicano Arabian horse栗子rabicano阿拉伯马

[ edit ] Rabicano or roan? [ 编辑 ] Rabicano或罗恩?

There are very few Arabians registered as roan , and according to researcher D. Phillip Sponenberg, roaning in purebred Arabians is actually the action of rabicano genetics. [ 26 ] Unlike a genetic roan, rabicano is a partial roan-like pattern; the horse does not have intermingled white and solid hairs over the entire body, only on the midsection and flanks, the head and legs are solid-colored. [ 26 ] Some people also confuse a young gray horse with a roan because of the intermixed hair colors common to both.有作为注册很少阿拉伯人罗安 ,根据研究员D.菲利普Sponenberg,roaning纯种阿拉伯马是实际的行动rabicano遗传学[26]不同于遗传罗安,rabicano是一个局部的软羊皮状图案;马没有混合的整个身体,只在腹部和侧面的白色和坚实的头发,头部和腿部的纯色。[ 26]还有些人混淆,因为在罗安一个年轻的灰马混合发色共同两者。 However, a roan does not consistently lighten with age, while a gray does. [ 36 ] [ 37 ]然而,一个罗安不坚持减轻随着年龄的增长,而灰色。 [36] [37]

[ edit ] Colors that do not exist in purebreds [ 编辑 ] 不存在纯种的颜色

Purebred Arabians never carry dilution genes . [ 38 ] Therefore, purebreds cannot be colors such as dun , cremello , palomino or buckskin . [ 39 ] However, there is pictorial evidence from pottery and tombs in Ancient Egypt suggesting that spotting patterns may have existed on ancestral Arabian-type horses in antiquity. [ 40 ] Nonetheless, purebred Arabians today do not carry genes for pinto or Appaloosa spotting patterns, except for sabino .纯种阿拉伯马从未进行稀释基因[38]因此,纯种可以不被如颜色逼债cremello帕洛米诺鹿皮[39]但是,有是在墓葬和陶片图案证据, 古埃及 ,斑点模式可能已经存在对马在古代祖先的阿拉伯式。 [40]然而,今天阿拉伯纯种不携带基因Appaloosa斑点图案,除萨维诺

深色西装,一个女人在马术表演骑在棕色和白色斑点的马
A tobiano patterned National Show Horse , a type of partbred Arabian一个tobiano图案显示马 ,partbred阿拉伯类型

Spotting or excess white was believed by many breeders to be a mark of impurity until DNA testing for verification of parentage became standard.斑点或多余的白色被许多育种家认为是杂质的标志直到DNA检测确认亲子关系成为标准。 For a time, horses with belly spots and other white markings deemed excessive were discouraged from registration and excess white was sometimes penalized in the show ring. [ 27 ] [27]一时间,腹斑和其他被视为过度的白色斑纹马气馁登记和多余的白色,有时在显示环的惩罚。

To produce horses with some Arabian characteristics but coat colors not found in purebreds, they have to be crossbred with other breeds. [ 41 ] Though the purebred Arabian produces a limited range of potential colors, they do not appear to carry any color-based lethal disorders such as the frame overo gene ("O") that can produce lethal white syndrome (LWS).要产生一些阿拉伯特性,但没有发现纯种毛色的马匹,他们要与其他品种杂交。[41 ]虽然阿拉伯纯种产生一个潜在的颜色范围有限,他们不进行任何色为主致死疾病,如帧overo基因(“O”,),可以产生致命的白色综合征部(LWS)。 Because purebred Arabians cannot produce LWS foals , Arabian mares were used as a non-affected population in some of the studies seeking the gene that caused the condition in other breeds. [ 42 ] Nonetheless, partbred Arabian offspring can, in some cases, carry these genes if the non-Arabian parent was a carrier. [ 43 ]由于纯种阿拉伯马可以不生产的LWS ,阿拉伯母马是一个寻求的基因,造成其他品种的条件的研究非受影响的人口使用。[42 ]尽管如此,partbred阿拉伯后代可以,在某些情况下,进行这些基因如果非阿拉伯父是一个载体。 [43]

[ edit ] Genetic disorders [ 编辑 ] 遗传性疾病

There are six known genetic disorders in Arabian horses.有6个著名的阿拉伯马的遗传性疾病。 Two are inevitably fatal, two are not inherently fatal but are disabling and usually result in euthanasia of the affected animal; the remaining conditions can usually be treated.两个都不可避免地致命,二是本身并不致命,但禁用,通常会导致受影响的动物实施安乐死;通常可以被视为其余条件。 Three are thought to be autosomal recessive conditions, which means that the flawed gene is not sex-linked and has to come from both parents for an affected foal to be born; the others currently lack sufficient research data to determine the precise mode of inheritance. [ 44 ] Arabians are not the only breed of horse to have problems with inherited diseases; fatal or disabling genetic conditions also exist in many other breeds , including the American Quarter Horse , American Paint Horse , American Saddlebred , Appaloosa , Miniature horse , and Belgian . [ 44 ]三被认为是常染色体 隐性遗传的条件,这意味着,有缺陷的基因是不是性联 ​​系,有来自父母双方受影响的将出生的小马驹的,其余的目前缺乏足够的研究数据来确定精确的继承模式。 [44]阿拉伯人是不是唯一马的品种有遗传性疾病的问题;死亡或致残的遗传条件也存在许多其他品种,包括在美国 的季马美国油漆美国Saddlebred, Appaloosa 微型马,和比利时的[44]

Genetic diseases that can occur in purebred Arabians, or in partbreds with Arabian ancestry in both parents, are the following:纯种阿拉伯马,或与父母双方的阿拉伯血统partbreds的遗传性疾病,可发生,有以下几种:

  • Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID). 重症联合免疫缺陷病(SCID)。 Recessive disorder, fatal when homozygous , carriers ( heterozygotes ) show no signs.隐性遗传疾病,致命的纯合子 ,携带者( 杂合子 )时显示没有迹象。 Similar to the " bubble boy " condition in humans, an affected foal is born with a complete lack of an immune system, and thus generally dies of an opportunistic infection, usually before the age of three months. [ 45 ] There is a DNA test that can detect healthy horses who are carriers of the gene causing SCID, thus testing and careful, planned matings can now eliminate the possibility of an affected foal ever being born. [ 46 ]泡沫男孩 “在人类的情况类似,受影响的马驹出生,缺乏完整的免疫系统,因此一般死于机会性感染,通常在3个月以下。[ 45] 有一个 DNA测试,可以检测出谁是健康的马,该基因携带者,造成免疫缺陷,从而测试和小心,有计划交配现在可以消除从未出生受影响的 可能性小马驹 [ 46]。
  • Lavender Foal Syndrome (LFS), also called Coat Color Dilution Lethal (CCDL). 薰衣草雏鹰综合症 (LFS),也称为毛色稀释致死(CCDL)。 Recessive disorder, fatal when homozygous, carriers show no signs.隐性遗传疾病,致命时,合子,运营商显示没有迹象。 The condition has its name because most affected foals are born with a coat color dilution that lightens the tips of the coat hairs, or even the entire hair shaft.因为受影响最严重的马驹出生的大衣毛,甚至整个头发轴的技巧与毛色稀释,减轻的条件,它的名字。 Foals with LFS are unable to stand at birth, often have seizures, and are usually euthanized within a few days of birth. [ 47 ] [ 48 ] In November 2009, Cornell University announced that a DNA test has been developed to detect carriers of LFS. LFS的马驹出生时无法站立,经常有癫痫发作,而且通常在出生几天内实施安乐死。[47 ] [48 ] 2009年11月,美国康奈尔大学宣布,已经发展到了DNA测试检测LFS的携带者。 Simultaneouly, the University of Pretoria also announced that they had also developed a DNA test. [ 49 ] [49] Simultaneouly,比勒陀利亚大学还宣布,他们还开发了DNA检测。
  • Cerebellar abiotrophy (CA or CCA). 小脑abiotrophy (CA或CCA)。 Recessive disorder, homozygous horses are affected, carriers show no signs.隐性遗传疾病,纯合子的马匹受到影响,运营商显示没有迹象。 An affected foal is usually born without clinical signs, but at some stage, usually after six weeks of age, develops severe incoordination, a head tremor, wide-legged stance and other symptoms related to the death of the purkinje cells in the cerebellum .受影响的小马驹通常是没有临床体征出生,但在某个阶段,通常在6周龄,发展严重不协调,头部震颤,宽腿的立场和死亡有关的其他症状 小脑浦肯野细胞。 Such foals are frequently diagnosed only after they have crashed into a fence or fallen over backwards, and often are misdiagnosed as suffering from a head injury caused by an accident.这种马驹经常诊断后,便撞向围栏或超过向后倒下,并经常被误诊患有事故造成头部受伤。 Severity varies, with some foals having fast onset of severe coordination problems, others showing milder signs.轻重不一,一些具有起效快,严重的协调问题,其他人表现出温和的迹象马驹。 Mildly affected horses can live a full lifespan, but most are euthanized before adulthood because they are so accident-prone as to be dangerous.轻度影响的马可住一个完整的寿命,但大多数都是在成年之前安乐死,因为他们是事故多发,是危险的。 As of 2008, there is a genetic test that uses DNA markers associated with CA to detect both carriers and affected animals. [ 50 ] Clinical signs are distinguishable from other neurological conditions, and a diagnosis of CA can be verified by examining the brain after euthanasia . [ 51 ]截至2008年,是一种遗传性的测试,使用与CA相关的DNA分子标记检测运营商和受影响的动物[ 50]的临床症状与其他神经系统疾病的区别,和CA的诊断,可通过检查 ,大脑核实安乐死[51]
  • Occipital Atlanto-Axial Malformation (OAAM).枕寰枢椎畸形(OAAM)。 This is a condition where the occiput, atlas and axis vertebrae in the neck and at the base of the skull are fused or malformed.这是这样一种情况:在颈部及颅底的枕骨,寰枢椎椎体融合或畸形。 Symptoms range from mild incoordination to the paralysis of both front and rear legs.症状的范围从轻微的不协调的前部和后部的腿瘫痪。 Some affected foals cannot stand to nurse, in others the symptoms may not be seen for several weeks.一些受影响的马驹无法忍受护士,在其他的症状可能不是几个星期。 This is the only cervical spinal cord disease seen in horses less than 1 month of age, and a radiograph can diagnose the condition.这是唯一的脊髓型颈椎病病马在不到1岁一个月,和一个X光片就可以诊断病情。 There is no genetic test for OAAM, and the hereditary component of this condition is not well researched at present. [ 52 ] [52]有没有OAAM基因测试,并在这种情况下的遗传组成部分,是目前没有很好的研究。
  • Equine juvenile epilepsy , or Juvenile Idiopathic Epilepsy, sometimes referred to as "benign" epilepsy, is not usually fatal.马少年癫痫 ,或幼年特发性癫痫,有时也被称为“良性”癫痫,通常不会致命。 Foals appear normal between epileptic seizures , and seizures usually stop occurring between 12 and 18 months. [ 48 ] Affected foals may show signs of epilepsy anywhere from two days to six months from birth. [ 53 ] Seizures can be treated with traditional anti-seizure medications, which may reduce their severity. [ 54 ] Though the condition has been studied since 1985 at the University of California, Davis , the genetic mode of inheritance is unclear, though the cases studied were all of one general bloodline group. [ 53 ] Recent research updates suggest that a dominant mode of inheritance is involved in transmission of this trait. [ 55 ] One researcher hypothesized that epilepsy may be linked in some fashion to Lavender Foal Syndrome due to the fact that it occurs in similar bloodlines and some horses have produced foals with both conditions. [ 48 ]马驹出现正常之间的癫痫发作 ,发作通常会停止12个月和18个月之间发生的 。[48]影响马驹可能会出现癫痫的迹象,从两天从出生到6个月内的任何地方传统的抗惊厥[53]癫痫发作是可以治疗的。药物,这可能会降低其严重程度。 [54]虽然条件自1985年以来一直就读于加州大学戴维斯分校 ,继承的遗传模式还不清楚,但个案研究所有一个一般的血缘集团。[ 53] ,最近的研究更新表明,占主导地位的继承的模式是在参与这一特性的传输。 [55]一位研究人员推测,癫痫可能以某种方式与薰衣草雏鹰综合症,由于这样的事实,它发生在类似的血统和一些马匹[48]这两种情况下产生的马驹。
  • Guttural Pouch Tympany (GPT) occurs in horses ranging from birth to 1 year of age and is more common in fillies than in colts.喉音袋Tympany(GPT)发生在从出生到1岁的马和雌共同比马队。 It is thought to be genetic in Arabians, possibly polygenic in inheritance, but more study is needed. [ 56 ] Foals are born with a defect that causes the pharyngeal opening of the eustachian tube to act like a one-way valve – air can get in, but it cannot get out.它被认为是在阿拉伯人的基因,可能是多基因的继承,但需要更多的研究。[56 ]马驹出生缺陷导致 咽鼓管开放的行为像一个单向阀-空气能得到,但它不能脱身。 The affected guttural pouch is distended with air and forms a characteristic nonpainful swelling.受影响的喉音袋是扩张与空气形成了一个特点nonpainful肿胀。 Breathing is noisy in severely affected animals. [ 57 ] Diagnosis is based on clinical signs and radiographic examination of the skull.呼吸严重影响动物的噪音。[57 ]的诊断是根据临床症状和颅骨的X光检查。 Medical management with NSAID and antimicrobial therapy can treat upper respiratory tract inflammation.医疗管理可与类固醇消炎药和抗菌治疗,治疗上呼吸道炎症。 Surgical intervention is needed to correct the malformation of the guttural pouch opening, to provide a route for air in the abnormal guttural pouch to pass to the normal side and be expelled into the pharynx.需要手术干预,以纠正畸形的喉音袋开放,提供异常喉音袋为航线传递给正常侧和被驱逐到咽。 Foals that are successfully treated may grow up to have fully useful lives. [ 58 ]已成功治疗马驹可能成长为具有完全有用的生活。[58 ]

The Arabian Horse Association in the United States has created a foundation that supports research efforts to uncover the roots of genetic diseases. [ 59 ] The organization FOAL (Fight Off Arabian Lethals) is a clearinghouse for information on these conditions. [ 60 ] Additional information is available from the World Arabian Horse Association (WAHO). [ 61 ] 阿拉伯马协会在美国建立了一个基金会支持的研究工作发现的遗传性疾病的根源[59 ]该组织马驹(击退阿拉伯Lethals)是一个信息交流中心的这些条件。[60 ]其他信息从世界阿拉伯马协会 (WAHO) [61] 。

[ edit ] Mythology [ 编辑 ] 神话

一个背负着灰色马未完成的画轮廓,仿佛从什么害怕。
An Arabian horse in the desert. Antoine-Jean Gros , c. 安托万-格罗斯让 ,C.沙漠中的阿拉伯马。 1810 1810

Arabian horses are the topic of many myths and legends.阿拉伯马是许多神话和传说的主题。 One origin story tells how Muhammad chose his foundation mares by a test of their courage and loyalty.一个起源的故事告诉他们的勇气和忠诚的考验如何穆罕默德选择他的基础母马。 While there are several variants on the tale, a common version states that after a long journey through the desert, Muhammad turned his herd of horses loose to race to an oasis for a desperately needed drink of water.虽然有几个变种上的故事,一个共同的版本,一个穿越沙漠的长途跋涉后,穆罕默德转向急需的水饮,他的群马松散种族的绿洲。 Before the herd reached the water, Muhammad called for the horses to return to him.之前牛群达到水,穆罕默德称为马返回到他。 Only five mares responded.只有五匹母马回应。 Because they faithfully returned to their master, though desperate with thirst, these mares became his favorites and were called Al Khamsa , meaning, the five. These mares became the legendary founders of the five "strains" of the Arabian horse. [ 62 ] [ 63 ] Although the Al Khamsa are generally considered fictional horses of legend, [ 64 ] some breeders today claim the modern Bedouin Arabian actually descended from these mares. [ 65 ]因为他们忠实地返回到自己的主人,虽然具有生津止渴的绝望,这些母马成了他的最爱, 被称为铝Khamsa,这意味着 ,5匹母马成为五个“株”阿拉伯马的传奇创始人。[ 62 ] [ 63]虽然铝Khamsa通常被认为是虚构的传奇马匹, [64]一些育种今天声称现代贝都因人阿拉伯实际上从这些母马的后代。[65 ]

Another origin tale claims that King Solomon (سليمان) was given a pure Arabian-type mare named Safanad ("the pure") by the Queen of Sheba . [ 64 ] A different version says that Solomon gave a stallion, Zad el-Raheb or Zad-el-Rakib ("Gift to the Rider"), to the Banu Azd people when they came to pay tribute to the king.另一个起源故事声称的所罗门王(سليمان)是一个纯粹的阿拉伯式的马奶命名Safanad(“纯” )示巴 女王[64 ]不同的版本说,所罗门给种马,ZAD EL - Raheb ZAD - EL - Rakib(“礼品骑手”),巴努当他们来到AZD人民,向国王致敬。 This legendary stallion was said to be faster than the zebra and the gazelle, and every hunt with him was successful, thus when he was put to stud, he became a founding sire of legend. [ 66 ]这个传说中的种马被说成是比斑马和瞪羚快,和与他的每一个狩猎成功,因此当他提出螺柱,他成为了一个传奇的创始父系。 [66]

Yet another creation myth puts the origin of the Arabian in the time of Ishmael , the son of Abraham . [ 67 ] In this story, the Angel Jibril (also known as Gabriel ) descended from Heaven and awakened Ishmael with a "wind-spout" that whirled toward him.然而,另一个创世神话将在阿拉伯的起源以实玛利 儿子亚伯拉罕[ 67]在这个故事中天使贾布里勒(也称为加布里埃尔)的后裔从天上惊醒“喷风”以实玛利,转过身对他的。 The Angel then commanded the thundercloud to stop scattering dust and rain, and so it gathered itself into a prancing, handsome creature - a horse - that seemed to swallow up the ground.于是天使吩咐雷云停止散射的灰尘和雨水,所以聚集成一个腾跃,英俊的生物 - 马 - 似乎要吞下地上。 Hence, the Bedouins bestowed the title "Drinker of the Wind" to the first Arabian horse. [ 68 ] [68]因此,贝都因人赋予的标题是“风饮”第一阿拉伯马。

Finally, a Bedouin story states that Allah created the Arabian horse from the four winds; spirit from the North, strength from the South, speed from the East, and intelligence from the West.最后, 贝都因人的故事指出, 安拉创造阿拉伯马从四方;精神,从北,从南方的力量,速度从东,从西方的情报。 While doing so, he exclaimed, "I create thee, Oh Arabian. To thy forelock, I bind Victory in battle. On thy back, I set a rich spoil and a Treasure in thy loins. I establish thee as one of the Glories of the Earth... I give thee flight without wings." [ 69 ] [ unreliable source? ] Other versions of the story claim Allah said to the South Wind: "I want to make a creature out of you. Condense."虽然这样做,他感叹道,“我创造你,哦阿拉伯你开口销,我绑定在战斗的胜利。在你的背上,我设置了丰富的溺爱和珍惜在你的腰部,我建立你的荣誉之一。地球... ...我给你没有翅膀的飞行“[69 ] [不可靠的来源 ?]其他版本的故事声称安拉南风窗说:“我想使你的生物浓缩” 。 Then from the material condensed from the wind, he made a kamayt -colored animal (a bay or burnt chestnut ) and said: "I call you Horse; I make you Arabian and I give you the chestnut color of the ant; I have hung happiness from the forelock which hangs between your eyes; you shall be the Lord of the other animals. Men shall follow you wherever you go; you shall be as good for flight as for pursuit; you shall fly without wings; riches shall be on your back and fortune shall come through your meditation." [ 70 ] ,然后从从风简明的材料,他做一个kamayt色的动物 (一或烧毁栗)说:“我叫你马,我让你阿拉伯,我给你的小蚂蚁的栗子色,我都挂幸福挂起你的眼睛之间,男子应跟着你,无论你走到哪里,你应其他动物的主,你应为追求良好的飞行,你没有翅膀的飞行从开口销;财富应在您的背部和财富应通过你的冥想。 “[70 ]

起源

Arabians are one of the oldest human-developed horse breeds in the world. [ 23 ] The progenitor stock, the Oriental subtype or "Proto-Arabian" was a horse with oriental characteristics similar to the modern Arabian.阿拉伯人在世界的最古老的人类开发的马品种之一。[23 ]祖股票,东方亚型或“原阿拉伯”是一个类似现代的阿拉伯东方特色的马。 Horses with these features appeared in rock paintings and inscriptions in the Arabian Peninsula as far back as 2500 BC. [ 71 ] In ancient history throughout the Ancient Near East , horses with refined heads and high-carried tails were depicted in artwork, particularly that of Ancient Egypt in the 16th century BC. [ 72 ]使用这些功能的马匹出现在阿拉伯半岛的岩画和碑文,早在公元前2500年。[71 ] 在古代历史,整个古代近东,与精致的头和尾巴的马高载描绘在艺术作品,尤其是[72] 古埃及在公元前16世纪。

Some scholars of the Arabian horse once theorized that the Arabian came from a separate subspecies of horse, [ 73 ] known as equus caballus pumpelli . [ 74 ] Other scholars, including Gladys Brown Edwards, a noted Arabian researcher, believe that the "dry" oriental horses of the desert, from which the modern Arabian developed, were more likely Equus ferus caballus with specific landrace characteristics based on the environments in which they lived, rather than being a separate subspecies. [ 9 ] [ 74 ] Horses with similar, though not identical, physical characteristics include the Marwari horse of India, the Barb of North Africa, the Akhal-Teke of western Asia and the now-extinct Turkoman Horse . [ 74 ]阿拉伯马有学者曾经的理论认为,阿拉伯从一个单独的亚种马,[73 ] 称为雅科仕caballus pumpelli 。[74 ]其他学者,包括格拉迪斯布朗指出阿拉伯研究员爱德华兹认为,“干“东方马的沙漠,从现代阿拉伯开发,更可能雅科仕ferus caballus具体长白特点的基础就在他们居住的环境,而不是一个单独的亚种。 [9] [74]有类似马,虽然[74]不相同,物理特性,包括Marwari马 ,印度,北非倒钩,阿克哈-塔克马西亚和现在灭绝的土库曼马。

沙漠根

一个黑色和黑白照片上的一匹黑马安装男子。鹰栖息在该男子伸出的手。
Carl Raswan pictured on an Anazeh warmare 卡尔Raswan图上Anazeh warmare

There are different theories about where the ancestors of the Arabian originally lived.阿拉伯的祖先原先住有不同的理论。 Most evidence suggests the proto-Arabian came from the area along the northern edge of the Fertile Crescent . [ 74 ] Another hypothesis suggests the southwestern corner of the Arabian peninsula, in modern-day Yemen , where three now-dry riverbeds indicate good natural pastures existed long ago, perhaps as far back as the Ice Age . [ 75 ] [ 76 ]大部分的证据表明,从该地区的原- 阿拉伯沿新月沃地的北部边缘。 [74]另一种假说认为在阿拉伯半岛西南角在现代也门,其中三个现在干涸河床表明良好的天然牧场早就存在,也许早在冰河时代 [75] [76] 。

The proto-Arabian horse may have been domesticated by the people of the Arabian peninsula known today as the Bedouin , some time after they learned to use the camel , approximately 4,000–5,000 years ago. [ 76 ] [ 77 ] Other scholars, noting that horses were common in the Fertile Crescent but rare in the Arabian peninsula prior to the rise of Islam , theorize that the breed as it is known today only developed in large numbers when the conversion of the Persians to Islam in the 7th century brought knowledge of horse breeding and horsemanship to the Bedouin. [ 78 ]原阿拉伯马可能已被驯化阿拉伯半岛的人,今天被称为贝都因人,一段时间后,他们学会了骆驼,约4000-5000年前。[76 ​​] [77 ]其他学者,注意到马共同在肥沃的新月,但罕见伊斯兰教在阿拉伯半岛兴起之前,理论,因为它是已知今天,只有在大量开发的转换时品种,波斯人在公元7世纪伊斯兰教带来了马的知识[78]贝都因人的繁育和马术。

Regardless of origin, climate and culture ultimately created the Arabian.不管产地,气候和文化,最终建立阿拉伯。 The desert environment required a domesticated horse to cooperate with humans to survive; humans were the only providers of food and water in certain areas, and even hardy Arabian horses needed far more water than camels in order to survive (most horses can only live about 72 hours without water).沙漠环境需要合作与人类生存的一个驯化的马,人类的食物和水的唯一供应商,在某些领域,甚至耐寒阿拉伯马需要远远超过了水的骆驼为了生存(最马只能活大约72停水小时)。 Where there was no pasture or water, the Bedouin fed their horses dates and camel's milk. [ 79 ] The desert horse needed the ability to thrive on very little food, and to have anatomical traits to compensate for life in a dry climate with wide temperature extremes from day to night.或在没有牧场或水的贝都因美联储他们的马匹日期和骆驼奶。 [79]所需的沙漠马到茁壮成长很少的食物,和解剖特征,以弥补在气候干燥对生活很宽的温度的能力从白天到夜晚的极端。 Weak individuals were weeded out of the breeding pool, and the animals that remained were also honed by centuries of human warfare. [ 80 ] [80]弱个人被淘汰的养殖池,剩下的动物也由数百年的人类战争磨练。

The Bedouin way of life depended on camels and horses: Arabians were bred to be war horses with speed, endurance, soundness, and intelligence. [ 80 ] [ 81 ] Because many raids required stealth, mares were preferred over stallions as they were quieter, and therefore would not give away the position of the fighters. [ 80 ] A good disposition was also critical; prized war mares were often brought inside family tents to prevent theft and for protection from weather and predators. [ 82 ] Though appearance was not necessarily a survival factor, the Bedouin bred for refinement and beauty in their horses as well as for more practical features. [ 81 ]贝都因人的生活的方式取决于骆驼和马:阿拉伯人饲养战马。与速度,耐力,稳健,和智力[80 ] [81 ]由于许多空袭所需的隐身,超过公马母马被首选,因为他们安静, [80] ,因此不会放弃战士的位置。一个很好的处置也至关重要;珍贵的战争母马往往带来家庭帐篷内,以防止盗窃,从天气和食肉动物的保护[ 82 ]虽然外观并不一定生存的因素,细化和他们的马匹美容,以及更实用的功能繁殖的贝都因人。[81 ]

菌株和家系

For centuries, the Bedouin tracked the ancestry of each horse through an oral tradition .几个世纪以来,贝都因人跟踪每个马的祖先通过口头传统。 Horses of the purest blood were known as Asil and crossbreeding with non- Asil horses was forbidden.最纯净的血马被称为ASIL和被禁止与非ASIL马杂交。 Mares were the most valued, both for riding and breeding, and pedigree families were traced through the female line.马雷什最看重的是,无论是骑​​马和繁殖,血统的家庭,通过女性线追查。 The Bedouin did not believe in gelding male horses, and considered stallions too intractable to be good war horses, thus they kept very few colts , selling most, and culling those of poor quality. [ 83 ] [83]贝都因不相信男马,并认为种马太棘手良好的战马,因此他们保持很少马队,销售,和淘汰那些质量差。

Over time, the Bedouin developed several sub-types or strains of Arabian horse, each with unique characteristics, [ 84 ] and traced through the maternal line only. [ 85 ] According to the Arabian Horse Association , the five primary strains were known as the Keheilan, Seglawi, Abeyan, Hamdani and Hadban. [ 86 ] Carl Raswan , a promoter and writer about Arabian horses from the middle of the 20th century, held the belief that there were only three strains, Kehilan, Seglawi and Muniqi.随着时间的推移,贝都因人制定了若干子类型或阿拉伯马株,各具有独特的特点,[84 ]通过产妇线追查。[85 ] 据阿拉伯马协会,五个主株被称为Keheilan,Seglawi,Abeyan,达尼和Hadban [86] 卡尔Raswan ,从20世纪中叶的阿拉伯马的发起人和作家,相信有只有3株,Kehilan,Seglawi和Muniqi举行。 Raswan felt that these strains represented body "types" of the breed, with the Kehilan being "masculine", the Seglawi being "feminine" and the Muniqi being "speedy". [ 87 ] There were also lesser strains, sub-strains, and regional variations in strain names. [ 88 ] [ 89 ] Therefore, many Arabian horses were not only Asil , of pure blood, but also bred to be pure in strain, with crossbreeding between strains discouraged, though not forbidden, by some tribes. Raswan认为,这些菌株代表身体“类型”的品种Seglawi Kehilan,“男性化”,“女人味”Muniqi“快捷” [87]也有较小的菌株,子株,应变名称的区域差异[88] [89]因此,许多阿拉伯马没有只ASIL,纯血,但也孕育是纯粹的应变,与气馁杂交菌株间,虽然没有明令禁止的一些部落,。 Purity of bloodline was very important to the Bedouin, and they also believed in telegony , believing if a mare was ever bred to a stallion of "impure" blood, the mare herself and all future offspring would be "contaminated" by the stallion and hence no longer Asil. [ 90 ]血统纯度是非常重要的贝都因人,他 ​​们也认为在先父遗传 ,相信如果母马曾孕育了“不纯”血种马,自己和所有后代的母马会“污染”的种马,因此[90]不再ASIL。

This complex web of bloodline and strain was an integral part of Bedouin culture; they not only knew the pedigrees and history of their best war mares in detail, but also carefully tracked the breeding of their camels, Saluki dogs, and their own family or tribal history. [ 91 ] Eventually, written records began to be kept; the first written pedigrees in the Middle East that specifically used the term "Arabian" date to 1330 AD. [ 92 ] As important as strain was to the Bedouin, modern studies of mitochondrial DNA suggest that Arabian horses alive today with records stating descent from a given strain may not actually share a common maternal ancestry. [ 93 ]这是贝都因文化的一个不可分割的一部分的血统和应变复杂的网络,他们不仅知道详细的战争母马的血统和历史,而且还仔细跟踪他们骆驼,养殖Saluki狗,和自己的家庭或部落历史。 [91]最终,书面记录开始保持在中东的第一份书面血统,专门用于公元1330年的“阿拉伯”日期。[92 ]作为应变重要的是贝都因人,现代研究线粒体DNA的建议,今天的阿拉伯马,运用说明从一个给定的的应变血统的记录可能不会实际上都有一个共同的产妇的祖先。[93]

历史发展

一个两轮式战车画线画两匹马,与3名男子在战车。其中一人举着盾牌。
Hittite chariot (drawing of an Egyptian relief) 赫梯战车(绘图埃及救济)

在古代世界中的作用

Fiery war horses with dished faces and high-carried tails were popular artistic subjects in Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia , often depicted pulling chariots in war or for hunting.与火热的战争马抛出的面 ​​孔和高进行的尾巴在流行艺术的古埃及,美索不达米亚的科目,经常被描述在战争或狩猎拉的战车。 Horses with oriental characteristics appear in later artwork as far north as that of Ancient Greece and the Roman Empire .具有东方特色的马出现在以后的艺术品,古希腊和罗马帝国的遥远的北方。